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Laparoscopy is a surgery in which long telescope like instruments are used through small incisions or natural body openings in order to diagnose and treat disease.
Commonly performed laparoscopic surgeries wherein an instrument is introduced through the abdomen to visualize the womb and its surroundings like the fallopian tube and ovaries from above known as diagnostic laparoscopy. When it is used to treat a condition its called operative laparoscopy.
Do all women with infertility undergo laparoscopy?
There are specific indications for undergoing laparoscopy and the decision for the same is taken in consultation with your fertility specialist.
When is laparoscopy done?
Laparoscopy is indicated whenever the history of the patient, clinical examination or other investigations such as Ultrasonography (USG) or Hysterosalpingography (HSG) indicate an abnormality in pelvic region. Hysteroscopy usually goes hand in hand with laparoscopy.
Common indications being:
- Diagnostic laparoscopy – It is generally done to visualize check whether the uterus and its surrounding structures are normal. A blue coloured dye can be injected from the cervix (mouth of the uterus) by an assistant and the dye is seen coming out through the fallopian tubes via the telescope, thus confirming that the tubes are open (chromopertubation).
- Operative laparoscopy – If there is history suggestive of blocked tubes or HSG is showing blocked tubes, severe cyclic pelvis pain or endometriosis and anovulation in a thin, hyperandrogenic women with PCOS, multiple fibroid in the uterus etc.
Which conditions can be treated by Laparoscopy?
Almost all the surgeries can now be done laparoscopically. You may be advised laparoscopy for the following conditions:
- Fibroid uterus
- Ovarian drilling
- Cyst removal
- Endometriosis or chocolate cyst
- Removal of uterus – Hysterectomy for abnormal uterine bleeding, multiple fibroids, etc
- Sling surgeries for prolapse of the uterus